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In orthopedics, these injuries are often managed conservatively with NSAIDs, activity modification, physical therapy and cortisone injections. However, pain from the biceps brachii tendon is rarely due to inflammation. In fact, there is no evidence that the root cause of biceps tendon pain is from acute inflammation of the tendon. Histologic studies looking at the tendon architecture under a microscope showed no evidence of acute inflammation, and tendon changes are consistent with chronic degenerative process (Streit et al 2015).
At Boston Sports & Biologics, we use diagnostic ultrasound and differential injections to confirm the location of the shoulder pain. Boston Sports & Biologics is one of the few clinics in Massachusetts to be accredited by the American Institute of Ultrasound Medicine (AIUM) in diagnostic musculoskeletal ultrasound and ultrasound guided injections. Regenerative medicine is a new field and successful placement of these injections into the tendon matters. Make sure you confirm that your physician is adequately trained to place these injections.
Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain, and most commonly occurs between ages 40 to 60 years. In chronic cases, viewing the plantar fascia under a microscope (histological analysis) shows no signs of inflammatory cells invading the fascia. Instead the tissue shows fibrosis and degenerative changes.
Epichloë festucae is an endophyte of the agriculturally important perennial ryegrass. This species systemically colonises the aerial tissues of this host where its growth is tightly regulated thereby maintaining a mutualistic symbiotic interaction. Recent studies have suggested that small secreted proteins, termed effectors, play a vital role in the suppression of host defence responses. To date only a few effectors with important roles in mutualistic interactions have been described. Here we make use of the fully assembled E. festucae genome and EffectorP to generate a suite of 141 effector candidates. These were analysed with respect to their genome location and expression profiles in planta and in several symbiosis-defective mutants. We found an association between effector candidates and a class of transposable elements known as MITEs, but no correlation with other dynamic features of the E. festucae genome, such as transposable element-rich regions. Three effector candidates and a small GPI-anchored protein were chosen for functional analysis based on their high expression in planta compared to in culture and their differential regulation in symbiosis defective E. festucae mutants. All three candidate effector proteins were shown to possess a functional signal peptide and two could be detected in the extracellular medium by western blotting. Localization of the effector candidates in planta suggests that they are not translocated into the plant cell, but rather, are localized in the apoplastic space or are attached to the cell wall. Deletion and overexpression of the effector candidates, as well as the putative GPI-anchored protein, did not affect the plant growth phenotype or restrict growth of E. festucae mutants in planta. These results indicate that these proteins are either not required for the interaction at the observed life stages or that there is redundancy between effectors expressed by E. festucae.
For microscopy of E. festucae culture growth, a small piece of a fresh colony was inoculated on the edge of a glass slide covered with a thin layer of 1.5% H2O agar placed on an agar plate with 3% H2O agar. Strains were incubated for 6 days before examination with an Olympus IX71 inverted fluorescence microscope using the filter sets for DIC and CFW/DAPI. For staining of the cell wall, a drop of a 3 mg/ml of Calcoflour White was added to the sample just before microscopy.
For the examination of growth and morphology of hyphae in planta, pseudostem tissue was stained with aniline blue diammonium salt (Sigma) and Wheat Germ Agglutinin conjugated to AlexaFluor488 (WGA-AF488, Molecular Probes/Invitrogen). First, infected tissue was incubated in 100% EtOH overnight at 4C followed by an incubation in 10% KOH overnight at 4C. Samples were washed at least 3 times with PBS (pH 7.4) before incubation in the staining solution (0.02% aniline blue, 10 ng/ml WGA-AF488, 0.02% Tween-20 (Invitrogen) in PBS (pH 7.4)) for 10 min. Samples were vacuum-infiltrated with the staining solution for 30 min and then stored at 4C until analysis. Examination of these samples was performed with a Leica SP5 DM6000B confocal microscope (488 nm argon and 561 nm DPSS laser, 40 oil immersion objective, NA = 1.3) (Leica Microsystems). For TEM pseudostem samples were fixed with 3% glutaraldehyde and 2% formaldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.2 for 1 h, as described previously . The fixed samples were examined with a Philips CM10 TEM and the images were acquired using a SIS Morada digital camera. Sections of the resin-embedded samples were also stained with 0.05% toluidine blue in phosphate buffer and heat-fixed at approx. 100C for 10 s. These samples were examined with a Zeiss Axiophot Microscope with Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) Optics and Colour CCD camera.
For the in planta localization of the Ssp-mCherry-NLS fusion proteins, un-fixed pseudostem samples were examined with a Leica SP5 DM6000B confocal microscope (488 nm argon and 561 nm DPSS laser, 40 oil immersion objective, NA = 1.3).
(A)-(D) Representative DIC images captured with the inverted microscope of WT and deletion mutant strains grown on 1.5% water agar for 6 days. (A) Hyphal bundle formation. (B) Hyphal fusion points. (C) Hyphal coils. (D) Hyphal tips. (E) Hyphae stained with Calcofluor white to examine cell wall composition. (F) Colony morphology of WT compared to the deletion strains grown on 2.4% PDA for 7 days. Bar: 20 μm.
(A) Light microscope analysis of fixed L. perenne pseudostem cross sections stained with Toluidine blue. The focus of the section is on the vascular bundles and surrounding regions; Bar = 10 μm. (B) TEM analysis of hyphal growth in the host apoplast; Bar = 2 μm. (C) Magnified transmission electron micrograph of one single hypha; Bar = 1 μm. Representative images from one of the independent mutants for each gene. Red arrows indicate position of hyphae and green arrows epiphyllous hyphae.
In this study, we have identified for the first time, a suite of effector candidates from the grass endophyte E. festucae. Genes encoding effector candidates were found to associate with MITEs but not with AT-rich regions or TEs, indicating that they might not be under strong selection pressure. Three effector candidates were functionally analysed but were found to be dispensable for the interaction with L. perenne under the growth conditions analysed. Although we could not find any evidence for a role for any of these effectors in the interaction, the list of effector candidates identified provides a good database for selecting other proteins and strategies for functional analysis. Sequencing of additional Epichloë species will help identify effector genes conserved across species or unique to one species and thereby provide important insights into the role of these effectors in host specificity in this agriculturally important symbiosis.
Only a thorough and detailed dilated retinal examination by an experienced retinal specialist can detect small or very peripheral retinal tears or holes. Your ophthalmologist will put drops in your eye to dilate (widen) the pupil. He will then look into the back of your eye through special optical lenses and use a diagnostic microscope to examine all the areas of your retina in 3D. Standard 2D imaging or retinal scans can easily miss a peripheral retina tear or hole. Also, a 2D wide field digital retinal imaging can also result in a false positive result, where a retinal tear or hole is incorrectly diagnosed when in fact, there is no such problem. Either way, it is vital to have the definitive diagnosis confirmed by your ophthalmologist, giving you the reassurance and confidence in the most appropriate treatment and/or monitoring plan being instituted.
An intravenous pyelogram is a diagnostic x-ray of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. It involves injecting a contrast agent or a dye injected intravenously, where then the urinary tract will show up very clearly, which is not seen on regular x-rays. An intravenous pyelogram may be done for many reasons, including:
Ultrasound scans use sound waves to build up a picture of the inside of the body. To scan the prostate gland a small probe is passed into the back passage and the image of the prostate appears on a screen. This type of scan is used to measure the size and density of the prostate. A sample of cells (biopsy) can be taken at the same time for examination under the microscope by a pathologist.
Yet it appears that none of these investigators have done any thin section investigations of the Tapeats Sandstone to substantiate their claims of ductile deformation of the Tapeats Sandstone in these two folds. Obviously, more detailed field and laboratory studies (especially intensive microscope examination) are needed to resolve the questions of what condition the sandstone was in when it was deformed into these folds, and thus how soon after deposition the deformation occurred, before or after lithification of the sandstone. Any field and laboratory study of the Tapeats Sandstone in the Carbon Canyon fold should thus also include a field and laboratory study of the Tapeats Sandstone in the Monument fold, as well as field and laboratory studies of the Tapeats Sandstone in other locations distant from these folds. This would enable observations and conclusions at the one location to be confirmed in the studies at the other locations, because the evidence seen in thin section examination of the Tapeats Sandstone in these folds should be different from that in the distant sandstone samples if the folding was due to ductile behavior under the stress of deformation of the lithified sandstone, whereas the microscope evidence should be nearly identical in all samples if the folding was due to soft-sediment deformation. 153554b96e